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A/an and the

Perhatikan kalimat dibawah ini:

Karen is talking to Charlie

Karen: I had a racket and a shuttlecock for playing badminton

Karen: The racket wasn’t very good but the shuttlecock was new

¬ Karen mengatakan a racket dan a shuttlecock karena ini pertama kalinya ia menyebutkan hal tersebut.

¬ Karen sekarang mengatakan the racket dan the shuttlecock karena Charlie sekarang tahu raket dan shuttlecock mana yang ia bicarakan – raket dan shuttlecock yang ia pakai untuk bermain badminton

Bandingkan a dan the pada contoh kalimat berikut ini:

-          A man and a woman were rowing a boat in Musi River. The man was Australian but I think the woman was Asian.

-          When we were on vacation, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we had our lunch at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.

A. Kita menggunakan the ketika kita sedang berpikir suatu benda tertentu. Bandingkan a/an dan the pada kalimat berikut:

-          Diana sat down on a chair. (mungkin salah satu dari beberapa kursi yang ada diruangan tersebut)

Diana sat down on a chair nearest the kitchen. (kursi tertentu yang paling dekat dengan dapur)

-          Glenn is looking for a job. (tidak mengacu pada pekerjaan tertentu)

→    Did Glenn get the job he applied for? (pekerjaan tertentu, yang sudah ia kirimkan lamarannya)

-          I bought  a bike yesterday. (tidak disebutkan sepeda tertentu)

I have washed the bike this morning. (sepeda yang sudah ia beli sebelumnya)

B. The digunakan ketika sudah jelas benda atau orang mana yang kita maksudkan. Contohnya, di sebuah ruangan kita berbicara mengenai ‘the light / the floor / the ceiling / the door / the carpet’ dan lain-lain yang memang ada di ruangan tersebut.

-          Can you turn off the light, please? (=lampu yang ada di ruang tamu)

-          I took a taxi to the station. (=stasiun yang ada di kota tersebut)

-          I’d like to speak to the manager, please. (=manager yang bertugas di toko tersebut)

Dengan cara yang sama, kita juga mengatakan (go to) the bank, the post office:

-          I must go to the bank to get some money and then I’m going to the post office to get some stamps. (Pembicara biasanya pikirannya telah mengacu pada bank atau kantor pos tertentu)

Juga: the doctor, the dentist:

-          Bonny isn’t very well. He’s gone to the doctor. (=dokter langganannya)

-          I hate going to the dentist.

Bandingkan a:

-          Is there a bank near here?

-          My sister is a dentist.

Juga the:

-          Vina works in the city center. (not ‘in city center’)

-          My brother is in the army. (not ‘in army’)

C. Kita mengatakan ‘once a week / three times a day / $1.50 a kilo, dst.:

-          ‘How often do you go to the cinema?’ ‘About once a month.’

-          ‘How much are those potatoes?’ ‘$1.50 a kilo.’

-          She works eight hours a day, five days a week.

INDONESIAN BUSINESS COALITION ON AIDS (IBCA) IS LOOKING FOR PROFESSIONAL AND SKILLED CANDIDATE AS BELOW:

Title: Program Coordinator

Duration: 2 years Duty

Station: Jakarta

BACKGROUND The Indonesian Business Coalition (IBCA) is a non-profit, politically neutral, voluntary association of businesses operating in Indonesia, working together to adopt best practices in the fight against HIV/AIDS. IBCA is organizing a private sector response to the growing HIV/AIDS problem in Indonesia and assist company employers to develop and implement comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS programs.

IBCA is looking for a capable Indonesian professional for its ‘Program Coordinator’s post.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Under the overall guidance and supervision of the Executive Director, the Program coordinator will be responsible for following terms of reference:

* Implement IBCA HIV-SMART Workplace Program to IBCA members and clientele.

* Assist employers to develop non-discriminatory workplace policies and to deliver effective, affordable workplace training programs, in line with National Strategy Framework.

* Lead and train the service providers (LSM) on the set program menu.

* Arrange regular training of trainer’s workshops to guide the Master trainers.

* Promote awareness of HIV as a workplace issue through the IBCA members by effective training program.

* Coordinate the work place program systematically and effectively.

* Monitor and evaluate the services provided by the NGOs.

Represent IBCA on appropriate government and other committees (related to IBCA programs and products),

* Lead the Marketing & Communications implementation plan. Liaison with IBCA members for events and activities.

* Coordinate designing of fliers, banners, booklets and other publications as required.

* Provide logistical support for seminar, workshops and meetings as required.

· Develop a work plan including budget and timeline and implement it and prepare financial reports.

· Prepare half yearly reports, documentation of IBCA activities, monthly report etc.

· Write articles promoting IBCA work for media.

· Write regular articles for printed media and websites.

· Upon receipt of IBCA training on website maintenance; the Program Coordinator is expected to perform maintenance and up keeping of IBCA website.

· Any other business as required by the Founder’s Board.

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT: The Program Coordinator will be under the direct supervision of the Executive Director.

COMPETENCIES: Corporate Competencies:

* Demonstrates integrity by modeling the Human Resource values and ethical standards.

* Promotes the strategic goals and objectives of IBCA.

* Displays cultural, gender, religion, race, nationality, age sensitivity and HIV positive colleagues.

* Treats all people fairly regardless of their HIV Status, without favoritism.

Functional Competencies:

· Ability to provide top quality policy advice and services on program delivery at CEO or higher level

· In-depth practical knowledge of Human Resources (HR) policy issues.

· Ability to lead in area of results-based management and reporting.

· Ability to go beyond established practices and models and to propose new approaches which expand the scope of IBCA effectiveness work in Indonesia

· Builds strong relationship s with IBCA clients and external actors and association with regional and international entities working on same issues.

· Demonstrate capacity to plan, prioritize and deliver tasks on time to meet goals in a highly pressured environment.

· Proven skills to work in a team and communicate in a multi-cultural environment

· Ability to respond flexibly to country needs and generate innovative, practical solutions to challenging situations.

· Excellent networking, communication, negotiation, analytical and organizational skills.

· Advanced computer skills in common office programs (Word, Excel Power-Point, etc). Knowledge of Data Base will be an added advantage.

· Willingness to travel extensively.

QUALIFICATIONS: · Graduation degree in Social Science, Public Health, Development Planning or related discipline.

· At least five years experience in program development and management.

· Excellent public speaker and training and facilitation skills.

· Excellent English and Bahasa Indonesia language skills for writing and oral communication.

Salary: 9.5 million and medical benefits.

Please send your recent resume with three references with a cover letter explaining ‘why do you want this job’. IBCA provides equal opportunities to all including HIV positive candidate.

Write: Post: Program Director on the cover letter You can email (encouraged) , mail or fax your application to: Taslima Lazarus Country Coordinator, IBCA Menara Duta, Jl. Rasuna Said, Kav. B-9, Jakarta 12910 Email: sekretariat@ ibca.or.id Or fax: (021) 522 9561

1. Apa itu Modal Auxiliary Verb?

Kata kerja can, could, may, might, will, would, shall (biasanya dalam Inggris British), should, must, dan ought to disebut ’modal auxiliary verb’ (kata kerja bantu modal). Mereka digunakan sebelum infinitive atau kata kerja lainnya, dan menambah makna tertentu. Need, dare, dan had better kadang juga bisa digunakan seperti modal auxiliary verb.

2. Grammar

a. Kata kerja modal tidak memiliki –s pada orang ketiga tunggal (third person singular)

She may know his address. (not…She mays…)

b. Kalimat tanya, negative, tags, dan jawaban singkat dibentuk tanpa menggunakan do.

Can you swim? (not…Do you can swim?)

He shouldn’t be doing that, should he? (not…He doesn’t should…)

c. Setelah kata kerja modal, kita gunakan infinitive tanpa to terhadap kata kerja lainnya, kecuali ought.

I must water the flowers. (not…I must to water…)

Kata kerja modal ini juga bisa digunakan dalam tenses continous, perfect, dan pasif.

I may not be working tomorrow.

She was so angry she could have killed him.

The kitchen ought to be painted one of these days.

d. Kata kerja modal tidak memiliki infinitive atau participle (to may, maying, mayed, tidak ada sama sekali) dan mereka tidak memiliki bentuk lampau/past walaupun would, could, should, dan might terkadang bisa digunakan dalam bentuk past tense dari will, can, shall, dan may. Ekspresi dalam bentuk lain bisa digunakan ketika diperlukan.

I’d like to be able to skate. (not…to can skate)

People really had to work hard in those days. (not…People really musted work…)

e. Bagaimanapun, kalimat dalam bentuk past bisa diekspresikan dengan menggunakan modal verb yang diikuti dengan perfect infinitive (have + past participle)

You should have told me you were coming.

I think I may have annoyed Aunt Mary.

f. Modal verb memiliki bentuk negative singkat (can’t, won’t etc) yang biasa digunakan secara informal. (Shan’t dan mayn’t hanya digunakan dalan British English; bahkan mayn’t sangat jarang digunakan). Will dan would juga memiliki bentuk afirmasi singkat (‘ll, ‘d)

g. There biasa digunakan sebagai preparatory subject dengan modal verbs, terutama ketika diikuti oleh be

There may be rain later today.

3. Makna

Modal verb tidak digunakan untuk mengatakan bahwa suatu keadaan benar-benar terjadi atau peristiwa tersebut benar telah terjadi. Kita gunakan modal verb, sebagai contohnya, untuk mengatakan suatu hal yang kita harapkan, yang mungkin atau tidak mungkin, yang kita anggap penting, yang kita inginkan terjadi, yang kita tidak yakin mengenainya, yang cenderung akan terjadi, atau yang tidak terjadi.

He may arrive any time.

She could be in London or Paris or Tokyo – nobody knows.

I can’t swim.

I think you ought to see a lawyer.

We really must tidy up the garden.

What would you do if you had a free year?

Edinburgh can be very cold in winter.

I think they should have consulted a doctor earlier.

You might have told me Frances was ill.

A. Forms

Affirmative Questions Negative
I am eating Am I eating? I am not eating
You are eating Are you eating? You are not eating
He/she/it is eating Is he/she/it eating? He/she/it is not eating
We are eating Are we eating? We are not eating
They are eating Are they eating? They are not eating

B. Pemakaian

Present Continous Tense digunakan ketika:

1. Kita membicarakan suatu aksi yang bersifat temporer/ sementara dan situasi yang sedang berlangsung diseputar waktu yang terjadi sekarang;yaitu sebelum, selama, dan setelah saat berbicara.

Hurry up! We’re all waiting for you! (not We all wait…)
“What are you doing?” I’m writing an article for my blog.” (not …I write an article…)
Obama’s having his holiday in Hawaii at the moment
Why are you crying? Is someone hurting you?  (not…why do you cry?…)

2. Kita membicarakan kejadian yang berkembang dan berubah-ubah, bahkan jika hal tersebut berlangsung dalam jangka waktu yang panjang.

That tree is growing taller and taller everyday.
The climate is getting warmer. (not…The climate gets warmer)
Is your English getting better? (not…Does your English get better?)
The population of Indonesia is rising very fast. (not…rises very fast)

3. Membicarakan Masa Depan

Kita sering menggunakan Present Continous Tense ketika kita membicarakan tentang suatu hal yang sedang terjadi  di masa depan.

What are you doing tomorrow night?
Come and see us next week if you‘re passing through Jakarta.

4. Present Continous dan Present Simple: Situasi Permanen

Present Continous tidak digunakan ketika membicarakan suatu situasi yang berlangsung sangat lama atau permanen. Coba bandingkan:

-My brother‘s living at home for the moment.
You live in South Jakarta, don’t you?
-Why is that man standing on the table?
National Monument stands on the center of Jakarta.

5. Present Continous dan Present Simple: aksi yang berulang

Present Continous bisa mengacu kepada aksi dan peristiwa yang berulang, jika hal tersebut terjadi di seputar saat waktu bicara .

Why is he hitting the dog?
Brian’s seeing a lot of Felicity these days.

Namun kita tidak menggunakan Present Continous ketika berbicara mengenai aksi atau peristiwa yang berulang yang tidak terkait erat dengan saat waktu bicara.

I go to the mountain about twice a year. (not… I‘m going to the mountain about twice a year)
Water boils at 100° Celcius. (not…Water is boiling at  100° Celcius)

6. Perasaan fisik

Kata kerja yang mengacu kepada perasaan fisik (contohnya feel, hurt, ache) sering bisa digunakan pada Simple atau Continous Tense tanpa perbedaan makna yang tajam.

How do you feel? or How are you feeling?
My head aches. or My head is aching.

7. Kata kerja yang tidak digunakan di dalam Present Continous Tense

Beberapa kata kerja tidak digunakan di dalam Present Continous Tense seperti like, believe, contain, dll.

I like this wine. (not…I‘m liking this wine)
Do you believe what he says? (not…Are you believing?)
The tank contains about 7.000 litres at the moment. (not…The tank is containing)

Banyak makna-makna penting di dalam kalimat Bahasa Inggris seringkali menggunakan bentuk frase kata kerja. Sebagai contohnya di dalam kalimat tanya, negative, waktu, menyatakan kemungkinan, kesediaan, dll. Namun kata kerja di dalam bahasa Inggris tidak memiliki banyak bentuk yang berbeda, maksimal ada 5 bentuk (kecuali to be) seperti contohnya do, does, doing, done, did. Sehingga untuk mengungkapkan ekspresi makna-makna tertentu, sejumlah tambahan kata kerja ditambahkan ke dalam kata kerja yang lain. Ada 2 kelompok auxiliary verb

A. Be, do, dan have

Be ditambahkan ke dalam kata kerja yang lain untuk membentuk kalimat progressive (continous) dan pasif. Contohnya:

-          Is it raining?

-          She was imprisoned for three years.

Do digunakan untuk kalimat tanya, negative, dan empatik dari non-auxiliary verbs. Contohnya:

-          Do you smoke?

-          It didn’t matter

-          Do come in

Have digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perfect. Contohnya:

-          What have you done?

-          I realized that I hadn’t turned the lights off

B. Modal Auxiliary Verb

Kata kerja will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, must dan ought biasanya disebut ‘modal auxiliary verbs’. Mereka digunakan dengan kata kerja yang lain yang membentuk makna yang berbeda, kebanyakan berkaitan dengan tingkat kepastian dan kewajiban. Modal Auxiliary verbs ini akan kita bahas dikesempatan berikutnya.

Kata kerja lain (misalnya seem)yang digunakan dalam struktur verb + verb biasanya tidak dimasukkan kedalam kelompok auxiliary verb. Hal yang membedakannya adalah secara grammar. Dalam struktur auxiliary verb, pertanyaan dibentuk dengan hanya mengubah urutan auxiliary verb dan subjek dari kalimat tersebut, sementara pada struktur verb + verb auxiliary verb do harus ditambahkan pada kata kerja pertama. Kalimat negative pun dibentuk secara berbeda pula. Contohnya:

-          She ought to understand

Ought she to understand?

-          She seems to understand

Does she seem to understand?

-          He is swimming

He is not swimming

-          He likes swimming

He doesn’t like swimming.

To whom it may interested…:p *jw

Australia-Indonesia Institute bekerjasama dengan Universitas
Paramadina
menyelenggarakan program spesial, Pertukaran Tokoh Muslim Muda antara
Indonesia dan Australia, dimana tokoh/aktivis muslim muda dari
Indonesia
akan mengunjungi Australia selama 2 minggu dan bertemu baik Muslim
maupun
non-Muslim untuk bertukar pikiran dan berbagi pengalaman. Sebaliknya
tokoh
muslim muda Australia juga mengunjungi Indonesia dalam program yang
sama.

Program pertukaran ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman
terutama
mengenai peran agama di masing-masing negara. Program ini juga
ditujukan
untuk meningkatkan pemahaman terhadap Islam di kedua negara dan untuk
meningkatkan kesadaran mengenai keanekaragaman budaya di Australia
maupun
Indonesia.

Syarat-syarat pendaftaran:

Pria dan Wanita berusia di bawah 40 tahun.
Menyerahkan salinan Kartu Tanda Penduduk (KTP), atau Paspor.
Lancar berbicara bahasa Inggris dengan melampirkan salinan nilai
score
TOEFL (international atau institusional) minimal 450.
Menyertakan surat rekomendasi dari organisasi yang menjelaskan
kedudukan pelamar dalam organisasi tersebut.
Melampirkan surat pernyataan singkat berisi:
apa yang dapat diberikan pelamar pada program tersebut selama dan
sesudah kunjungan,
peran dari pelamar dalam organisasi dan alasan mengapa tertarik pada
program ini,
bagaimana pelamar akan membagi pengalamannya selama dan sesudah
program.
Surat pernyataan ini tidak boleh melebihi 2 halaman.
Melampirkan Curriculum Vitae terbaru (tanpa perlu melampirkan seluruh
salinan sertifikat atau dokumen yang dimiliki).
Membuat surat keterangan yang mencantumkan:
nama organisasi atau orang yang ingin ditemui di Australia.
hobby dan kebiasaan di waktu luang.
tanggal terakhir perjalanan ke Australia, jika ada.
tanggal keberangkatan ke Australia, jika terpilih.
alamat, fax atau nomor telephone yang dapat dihubungi.
Pasphoto 3 x 4 cm sebanyak 2 lembar.
Salinan Akte Kelahiran.
Melampirkan Surat rekomendasi sebanyak 2 buah dari 2 orang yang
menyatakan mengapa pelamar adalah kandidat yang tepat untuk mengikuti
program ini.

Calon pelamar disarankan untuk hanya mengirimkan persyaratan yang
disebutkan di atas.
Lamaran dapat dikirim ke:

Panitia Program Pertukaran Tokoh Muslim Muda
Indonesia-Australia

Universitas Paramadina
Jl. Gatot Subroto Kav. 97
Mampang, Jakarta Selatan 12790
Tel: 62 21 7918 1188
Fax: 62 21 799 33 75

Batas akhir pengiriman lamaran: Jum’at, 9 Januari 2009 pukul 16.00
WIB.
Informasi lebih lanjut hanya dapat ditujukan melalui email kepada:
phanggarini@ yahoo.com. au

Salam budaya,

Wati Syamsu
Cultural Section, Australian Embassy Jakarta,
Jl. H.R. Rasuna Said Kav.C15-16, Jakarta 12940,
Tel. 2550 5262, Fax. 522 7104,
E-mail: wati.syamsu@ dfat.gov. au

Deviani Setyorini

The New Zealand Development Scholarships (NZDS) scheme offers the
opportunity to people from selected developing countries to undertake
development-related studies in New Zealand.
This may include study related to education, health, rural
livelihoods, governance, human rights, or economic development,
depending on the human resource development training needs of the home
government.

New Zealand -Development Scholarships are offered for full-time,
tertiary level study at participating New Zealand education
institutions.
The NZDS scheme has two categories:
1-New Zealand Development Scholarships – Public category (NZDS-Public)
The NZDS-Public scholarships scheme is a bilateral scheme available to
individuals from selected partner countries in Southeast Asia and the
Pacific. The selection criteria is determined by the partner
government and NZAID.

Shortlisted applications, mostly from public sector employees, are
endorsed for a scholarship by the partner government. Employees from
civil society or private sector organisations may apply for the NZDS-
Public in some countries depending on country-specific selection
criteria. The levels and fields of study available for study in New
Zealand are determined according to the partner country’s human
resource development training needs.
Country eligibility download: Cambodia (pdf 6K), Indonesia (pdf 8K),
Lao PDR (pdf 6K), Philippines, Timor-Leste (pdf 5K), Viet Nam (pdf
5K), Cook Islands (pdf 9K), Fiji (on hold), Kiribati (pdf 9K), ,Papua
New Guinea (pdf 4K), ,Samoa (pdf 1K), Solomon Islands (pdf 1K), Tonga
(pdf 2K), Vanuatu (pdf 1K).
2-New Zealand Development Scholarships – Open category (NZDS-Open)
The NZDS-Open scholarships scheme is a non-bilateral scheme available
to candidates of some developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin
America and the Pacific. Under the NZDS-Open scheme, candidates
independently apply for a scholarship.

NZDS-Open scholarships are generally directed at employees of private
sector or civil society sector organisations, including non-
governmental organisations. In some countries, public sector employees
can also apply for a NZDS-Open scholarship depending on the country or
region-specific selection criteria. This criteria also determines the
levels and the fields of study under which candidates can apply to
study in New Zealand.
Eligible countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia: Cambodia (pdf
66K), Indonesia (pdf 68K), Lao PDR (pdf 66K), Maldives (pdf 58K),
Mongolia (pdf 58K), Myanmar (pdf 58K), Nepal (pdf 58K), Philippines
(pdf 62K), Sri Lanka (pdf 58K), Timor-Leste (pdf 75K), Viet Nam (pdf
55K)
Eligible countries in the Pacific region: Federated States of
Micronesia (pdf 84K), Marshall Islands (pdf 84K), Palau (pdf 84K),
Fiji (On hold), Kiribati (pdf 69K), Papua New Guinea (pdf 84K), Samoa
(pdf 61K), Solomon Islands (pdf 71K), Tonga (pdf 82K), Vanuatu (pdf
91K)
Eligible countries in Latin America: Argentina (pdf 74K), Bolivia (pdf
74K), Brazil (pdf 74K), Chile (including Rapa Nui) (pdf 74K), Ecuador
(pdf 74K), El Salvador (pdf 74K), Guatemala (pdf 74K), Honduras (pdf
74K), Nicaragua (pdf 74K), Paraguay (pdf 74K), Uruguay (pdf 74K)
Eligible countries in Africa: Kenya (pdf 70K), Mozambique (pdf 70K),
South Africa (pdf 70k), Tanzania (pdf xxK), Zambia (pdf 70K)
More info: http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds

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